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brief history of Lake Atitlan

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Lake Atitlán is situated in the highlands of Central America at an altitude of #### meters (#### feet) with a maximum depth of about 340 metres (1,120 ft) with an average depth of 220 metres (720 ft). Its surface area is 130.1 km2 (50.2 sq mi). It is approximately 18 by 8 km with around 20 ㎦ of water. Atitlán is technically an endorheic lake, feeding into two nearby rivers rather than draining into the ocean. It is shaped by deep surrounding escarpments and three volcanoes on its southern flank. The lake basin is volcanic in origin, filling an enormous caldera formed by an eruption 84,000 years ago. The culture of the towns and villages surrounding Lake Atitlán is influenced by the Maya people. The lake is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) west-northwest of Antigua.
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- Partial transcript -
Lakes are very young. They're much younger than humanity. Most of them are from the last ice age, 10,000, 13,000 years old. The oldest lake in the world, Pikal(sp) is 2 million years. Humans have more time. So they are still young in existence and very very unpredictable and to explain the complex response dynamic is ... you have a lake that has very little concentration of nutrients, and very little concentration of plankton, that's ... plankton, plants and animals that live suspended in the water, and then you increase and increase nutrients, you never know which is this point B that the amount of plankton that grows real fast and then you can reduce and reduce nutrients, and you never know which is this point B when you can turn back clearly. So that makes them very unpredictable ecosystems. 
Now the lake basin ... as they say, the lake has two parts: the basin and the other is the water part, everything that accumulates everything that drains, from the basin into the lake. 
Then the differences, we talked about the three things we make sure, the shape and the type of basin, is one of the six characteristics that distinguish one lake from another. It has several implications. What is what we see in Lake Atitlan basin, something that is very particular of Lake Atitlan basin, well, ... but there is something very peculiar about it and it is that the water body is almost the size of the land area. It's a very short basin. 
So, if you live down here in San Antonio or Santa Catarina Palopo, here's Panajachel, ... you have water from up here, down. So it's a watershed where the towns on the shore, will never have a lack (lot?) of water. 
Because you go up the mountain and you see the lake down there and that's as much land it has to accumulate into our river, which are not rivers, we have creeks. We don't really have rivers here in the basin. They are too small. Because and before the storms, we see a lot of cement boxes, and pipes so people will get in their town a little more water and the storm came and washed them all out.

Edward Muybridge

(9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904)

Edward Muybridge is an important figure in history because he was a bridge between still photography and recorded movement. He took the step into the visual world of motion that is still unfolding today. Muybridge’s photographs of the galloping horse foreshadowed the recorded image of man walking on the moon.


Eadweard (Born:Edward) James Muggeridge was born in the ancient town of Kingston-On-Thames, England on April 9, 1830 to a merchant and his wife, John and Susan Muggeridge. Kingston had historically hosted the coronation of English monarchs. When the coronation stone was discovered in 1850 and rededicated, it was found to carry the names of past Saxon kings including Eadweard the Elder, crowned in 900, and Eadweard the Martyr, crowned in 975. Edward Muggeridge changed his name to Eadweard Muybridge perhaps to recapture his Saxon identity.

Muybridge immigrated to New York and was employed by the London Printing and Publishing Company in 1852. Three years later as the California gold rush was making history, Muybridge moved west to San Francisco and opened a successful bookstore. He was contemplating the addition of photography to his agenda and in 1860 left San Francisco for the East Coast and eventually England to purchase photographic equipment. Traveling overland, mid-way through the journey he was involved in a serious accident, injuring his head on a boulder as he was thrown from the stagecoach. When it was possible for him to travel again he continued to England for medical attention and to recuperate. When Muybridge returned to America he brought the finest photographic equipment, the new career of landscape photography, and a new pseudonym, “Helios” which he used on occasion.

In 1867 Muybridge successfully photographed the Yosemite Valley. 1867 is also the year Secretary of State William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia. Muybridge was invited to tour Alaska with General Halleck to photographically document the new acquisition. Upon his return he photographed the Pacific railroads and the lighthouses of the Pacific Coast for the government. In 1868 Muybridge was named director of photographic surveys for the United States government. He invented one of the first camera shutters in 1869. In 1872 he documented wine production in California.

1872 was the year that Muybridge began his zealous involvement with motion photography. He was commissioned by Governor Leland Stanford to photograph the moving gait of his racehorse, Occident. Until this time the gait of a moving horse had been a mystery. When did the feet touch the ground? Did all four feet ever leave the ground at the same time? Painting the feet of the galloping horse had been an unsolved problem for artists.

Unfortunately, Muybridge had serious personal problems, and the commission had to be delayed. He was indicted for the murder of his wife’s alleged lover in 1874. Muybridge was acquitted, but felt the need to leave the country. He journeyed to Central America where he photographed Mexico, Panama and Guatemala. After successfully marketing his photographs of these areas, he returned to California. Upon his return Muybridge created a panorama view of San Francisco. Using a camera with 20×24 inch plates, he produced 16 sequential images of the city. The prints were matched perfectly together and mounted to linen, then folded accordingly and placed between leather covers.

In 1877 Muybridge chose to accept again the challenge of the moving horse. His first attempt was rejected because the photographs were retouched (which was customary at the time). The project was repeated, this time using 12 cameras, each hooked to an electrical apparatus that would trip the shutters as the horse galloped past. A press conference was called to witness the experiment so that no doubt could exist about the authenticity of the photographs. Governor Stanford’s racing mare, Sallie Gardner, was the model, July 19, 1878 was the date, and the experiment was a great success.

Muybridge invented the zoopraxiscope in 1879, a machine that allowed him to project up to two hundred single images on a screen. In 1880 he gave his first presentation of projected moving pictures on a screen to a group at the California School of Fine Arts, thus becoming the father of motion pictures. Muybridge met with Thomas Edison who had invented the phonograph, but nothing productive came of their meeting. Edison later invented the kinescope, which was the precursor of the movie camera used today.

Muybridge was offered and accepted a commission to continue his work at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1884 through 1885 he produced over 100,000 photographs of human and animal motion. He used nude models, which were usually students from the university, and animals from the zoo as subjects. For one series titled “Ascending Incline. Descending Incline” Muybridge used himself as the nude model. 781 of the photographs were published in a book titles Animal Locomotion; An Electro-Photographic Investigation of Animal Movement. The text was inclusive in eleven volumes and sold for six hundred dollars. Needless to say, the price was restrictive and still would be today. Later the work was reduced to two volumes, Animals in Motion in 1899 and The Human Figure in Motion in 1901.

By Vi Whitmire For IPHF                                                          READ MORE at Wikipedia

volcano San Pedro

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